Constants and conversion factors useful in nanotechnology

The following constants and conversion factors are useful in calculations about molecular manufacturing systems and various applications of such systems. In general, SI units are preferred in nanotechnology.

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Other web pages on constants, units, and conversion factors:

Yahoo has links to web pages of constants and units.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a page on the fundamental physical constants, a page on SI units, and a page with chemistry data for chemical species.
Tech Expo has a page on fundamental constants
Various astronomical constants.
Conversion of units.
Conversion of units.
Yahoo links to web pages that convert units.

Note that the absence of Greek letters on the web means some of the following symbols aren't quite right. Superscripts are prefixed with "^" to insure they can be interpreted correctly even if your browser does not support superscripts.

SI prefixes:

Fundamental units:

Derived units:


A few useful conversion factors:


  • 1. The Fundamental Physical Constants, by E. Richard Cohen and Barry N. Taylor, Physics Today, August 1995, page BG9.
  • 2. Exploring Chemistry with Electronic Structure Methods: a guide to using Gaussian, by James B. Foresman and Aeleen Frish, 1993.
  • 3. McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, Sybil P. Parker, Editor in Chief, 1982.
  • 4. Nanosystems: molecular machinery, manufacturing, and computation by K. Eric Drexler, Wiley 1992.
  • 5. Physics of Semiconductor Devices 2nd edition, S. M. Sze, Wiley 1981.
  • 6. The Universal Almanac, 1993, John W. Wright, published by Andrews and McMeel.
  • 7. Http://
  • 8. Science, September 26 1997, Vol. 277, No. 5334, pp 1963-1965; Total solar irradiance trend during solar cycles 21 and 22.
  • 9. Physics of Graphite, 1981, B.T. Kelly, Applied Science Publishers.
  • 10. Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010: GRAPHENE